Region Head, South Asia Pacific, Hilti Asia Pacific, Singapore


CTO, Tata Digital, Mumbai, India

One of top 6 technologists globally with over 150 implementations running across the globe, Sauvik Banerjjee is a Technologist and Vice President Digital Initiatives, Advisory to Group Co’s and CTO of TATACLIQ at Tata Industries Limited by profession. He is a tech evangelist and entrepreneur by heart, has built two successful start-ups and sold them in the UK and has been ranked right at the top of global CTOs online by Having mentored over 600 senior management over the years, Sauvik in India is also mentoring selected start-ups on building successful business models. He is on the board of advisors for several companies and start-ups alike. He has been responsible for disruptive innovation ideas in technology and Omnichannel Commerce that have earned him the distinction and title of being one of the only 6 people (the only person of Indian origin) in the world to have worked on all global Omnichannel Platforms. Sauvik also holds a robust track record in P&L roles where he has delivered over 143% growth, 122% growth across India and Europe for organisations like Infosys, Accenture and SAP. At SAP he was the Chief of Technology for SAP Global’s Omnichannel and Digital vertical.

Sauvik Banerjjee has been a recipient of multiple awards, some of his more recent awards include:

  • Infosys Global Star Award for the best disruption in Omni Channel Commerce 2012
  • Accenture European Award for innovation on disruption in Omni Channel Commerce 2013 and 2014
  • SAP Extra Mile Most Valued Player Award 2016
  • SAP Leadership Award for creating and delivering the world’s first figital omnichannel market place for the Tatas
  • SAP Ace Awards for Tata Cliq and AJIO 2016

These were in addition to completing his doctorate from University of Sunderland. His published papers on “Cross Language Information Retrieval System and models with Prof. Michael Oakes” have been widely referenced.

He was also part of the Information Retrieval Group, CLEC, Linguistic group of Google. He continues to be focused on innovation in the areas: Artificial Intelligence, IoT and Applications across Industries, Hover Board, Lunar Missions and Smart Cities.

Prateep BASU

Co-Founder and CEO, SatSure; stars Alumnus, Bangalore, India

  • Jun, 2017 - present: Founder & CEO - SatSure
  • Jun, 2014 - May, 2017: Space Industry Consultant - Northern Sky Research
  • Mar, 2011 - Aug, 2013: Scientist - Indian Space Research Organization
  • Dec, 2010 - Feb,2011: Business Analyst - Antrix Corporation

Kevin BONG

Managing Director, Economics and Investment Strategy, GIC, Singapore

Kevin is Managing Director of GIC’s Economics and Investment Strategy department (EIS), and is responsible for leading EIS to articulate GIC’s economic and strategic outlook over the medium- and long- term, define factor and asset class exposures and benchmarks, and target optimal allocations for active strategies across the Total Portfolio.

Prior to re-joining GIC in 2017, Kevin was Portfolio Manager for External Public Investments & Credit at OPTrust in Toronto, where he and his team pioneered the allocation to multi-asset and hedge funds, and advanced the transformation of the Trust’s investment policies and portfolio.  Before that, he had been Vice President and Portfolio Manager in GIC’s External Managers Department in New York, where he oversaw the North American equity and hedge fund book.  Kevin started his career with GIC in Singapore analyzing risk and return expectations of investment strategies and asset classes, refining optimization techniques for GIC’s long-term policy portfolio, and advising the government on its long-term investment needs and risk tolerance.

Kevin holds degrees in Electrical Engineering & Computer Science and Management Science (Finance) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is also a CFA charter holder.

Stephen CAIRNS

Director, Future Cities Laboratory (FCL), Singapore ETH-Centre (SEC), Singapore

CHENG Qingjun

Chief Specialist, Public Affairs, Huawei, Shenzhen, China

Vanessa DING

Senior Manager, Incubation and Start-up Management Division, A*ccelerate, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR); stars Alumna, Singapore

Experienced Scientist with a demonstrated history of working in the biomedical research industry. Skilled in Antibody Discovery and Development, Analytical Skills, Mammalian Cell Culture, and Public Speaking. Strong research professional with a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) focused on Stem Cell Biology from National University of Singapore.


CEO and Editor, The Market, Zurich, Switzerland

Mark Dittli is a journalist and author in Zurich, specializing in financial markets and global economics. He is CEO and editor of The Market, a new financial media platform that was launched in April 2019. The Market publishes in-depth analytical and background articles as well as interviews on companies, global industry trends and macroeconomic issues. From 2012 to 2017, Mark was the editor-in-chief of Finanz und Wirtschaft, Switzerland’s leading financial newspaper. Prior to that, he was the editor of the international section of Finanz und Wirtschaft and has spent five years as the U.S. correspondent of the paper in New York, covering economic and monetary policy as well as company issues. Mark has studied business economics in Zurich, journalism in New York and is a CFA charterholder. He is currently pursuing a Masters degree in history at the University of Zurich. Mark is married, has two children and lives in Zurich.

Piyush GUPTA

CEO and Director, DBS Group, Singapore

Mr. Piyush Gupta has been Chief Executive Officer and Director of DBS Group since 2009.

DBS is a leading financial services group in Asia, headquartered in Singapore. Recognised for its global leadership, DBS has been named “World’s Best Bank” by several global publications like Euromoney and Global Finance. The bank is at the forefront of leveraging digital technology to shape the future of banking, and was also named “World’s Best Digital Bank” by Euromoney. In addition, in 2019, DBS was listed among the top ten most transformative organisations of the decade by Harvard Business Review.

Prior to joining DBS, Piyush had a 27 year career at Citigroup, where his last position was Chief Executive Officer for South East Asia, Australia and New Zealand.

Piyush is Vice-Chairman of the Institute of International Finance, Washington and Chairman of Sim Kee Boon Institute for Financial Economics Advisory Board. In addition, he is a member of the United Nations Secretary-General’s Task Force on Digital Financing of the Sustainable Development Goals, Singapore’s Advisory Council on the Ethical Use of AI and Data, and the McKinsey Advisory Council. He also sits on the boards of Enterprise Singapore, Singapore’s National Research Foundation, and the Singapore’s Council for Board Diversity. Piyush is a term trustee of the Singapore Indian Development Association (SINDA).

Piyush has a Bachelor of Arts (Honours) Degree in Economics from St. Stephen's College, Delhi University, India and a Post Graduate Diploma in Management from IIM, Ahmedabad.

Piyush was named one of the world’s top 100 best-performing chief executives in Harvard Business Review - 2019 edition of “The CEO 100”. He was named Singapore Business Awards' Outstanding Chief Executive of the Year in 2016. In 2014, he was named as the Singapore Business Leader of the Year by CNBC and in 2013, he was accorded the CEO Leadership Achievement Award for Singapore and Asia Pacific by The Asian Banker.


CEO Reinsurance Asia, Regional President Asia, Swiss Re, Singapore

Russell Higginbotham started his career 1986 with a UK life insurer and in 1991, he joined Munich Re as a Senior Marketing Analyst. He joined Swiss Re in 1995 and served in various roles in the Life & Health Reinsurance development and strategy teams. Between 2002 and 2005, he was Life & Health Country Manager for Japan and subsequently for South Korea. In 2006, he moved to Sydney and served as Chief Executive Officer of Swiss Re's Australia and New Zealand operations. From 2010 to 2015, he assumed the role of Chief Executive Officer Reinsurance UK & Ireland, based in London, and was named Head of Life & Health Products Reinsurance in 2016. He was appointed Chief Executive Officer Reinsurance EMEA, Regional President EMEA and member of the Group Executive Committee in September 2018. With effect from 8 July 2019, Russell Higginbotham assumed the role of Chief Executive Officer Reinsurance Asia and Regional President Asia.


Senior Executive Director, CapitaLand Group, Singapore

Mr Manohar Khiatani is the Senior Executive Director of CapitaLand Group. Mr Khiatani assists the Group CEO in matters relating to organisation integration, and the India and business parks businesses. He also oversees the Group Centre of Excellence for Customer Services & Solutions. Mr Khiatani is a member of the CapitaLand Executive Committee.

Prior to joining CapitaLand in July 2019, he was the Deputy Group CEO of Ascendas-Singbridge. Before joining Ascendas in 2013, he served as the CEO of JTC Corporation (JTC), the Singapore government’s lead agency to plan, promote and develop industrial infrastructure and facilities. At JTC, he spearheaded the development of specialised infrastructure solutions for various sectors and positioned the organisation as an industrial infrastructure innovator.

Prior to joining JTC in 2009, Mr Khiatani was the Deputy Managing Director at the Singapore Economic Development Board (EDB). He joined the EDB in 1986 where he played an instrumental role in the development and transformation of important sectors in Singapore’s economy such as aerospace, marine and offshore, electronics, precision engineering, logistics, infocomms and media, and clean technology. He was also in charge of the EDB’s operations in the Americas and Europe.

Between 1994 and 1999, Mr Khiatani was the Managing Director of Preussag SEA, a diversified German conglomerate, where he was responsible for developing the group’s business in South East Asia. He returned to the EDB in 1999.

Mr Khiatani is a Board Member of several companies listed on the Singapore Stock Exchange. This includes Ascendas Funds Management (S) Limited (the manager of the Singapore-listed Ascendas Real Estate Investment Trust), Ascendas Property Fund Trustee Pte Ltd (the trustee-manager of the Singapore-listed Ascendas India Trust) and SIA Engineering Company Ltd. He also sits on various business and government committees.

Mr Khiatani’s previous Board Directorships include JTC Corporation, Jurong International, Jurong Port, SPRING Singapore and Media Development Authority.

He holds a Master in Naval Architecture from the University of Hamburg, Germany. He also attended the Advanced Management Program at the Harvard Business School in 2006.

Jeffrey KHOO

Chief Marketing Officer APAC, ED Broking Asia, Singapore

Jeffrey Khoo is a well-respected and prominent influencer in the agriculture sector. A Botanist by training, he speaks 5 languages and has worked for over 20 years in various Asia countries. His most recent role was Head, Food and Agriculture Sales, Asia at Swiss Re Corporate Solutions. He has previously held senior appointments at various firms including General Manager of a SGX mainboard listed Guangzhao IFB, Agribusiness Director of private equity firm Caudex Asia and Deputy CEO of Green Agritech International.

Educated in Singapore, Jeffrey went from Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) to National Junior College (NJC) and finally National University of Singapore (NUS). He was placed on the Dean’s List for meritorious academic performance in 1993 and graduated with Honours in Botany in 1994.

A well sought after speaker on the subject of Agriculture insurance, Jeffrey has given keynote speeches at the World Agriculture Forum, Aginvest Asia, Responsible Business Forum, International Rice Conference, Future of Food Conference, International Fertiliser Association Conference, Asia Agriculture Insurance Conference and many more. He has been featured on Asia Insurance Review, Insurance Asia News and various other publications.

Jeffrey was formerly Chairman, Industry Guru Series for the People’s Association (PA). Other past appointments include Honorary Auditor, Alumni International Singapore (AIS), Adviser, for Agriculture to Accounting Standards Council (ASC), Honorary Adviser for the Myanmar Rice and Paddy Traders Association and Adviser, Thailand Farmer Federation.

At the National University of Singapore Society (NUSS), Jeffrey serves as the current Honorary Treasurer. Notably, he is the founder of the NUSS Mentorship program and has served as Chairman for various NUSS subcommittees such as Alumni Development and University Relations, Cultural, Intellectual Pursuits and Finance.

LEE Pooi See

Program Leader, Nanomaterials for Energy and Water Management (NEW), Singapore-HUJ Alliance for Research and Enterprise (SHARE); stars Alumna, Singapore

Lee Pooi See received her Ph.D. degree from National University of Singapore in 2001. She joined Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing Ltd (now Globalfoundries) in research and technology development department from 2001-2003.

Pooi See is a recipient of the 2001 Norman Hackerman Young Author award presented by the Electrochemical Society, USA. In January 2004, she joined the School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University as an Assistant Professor. She was promoted to tenured Associate Professor in 2009. In Sept 2015, she was promoted to Full Professor.

She has authored and co-authored many publications in the field of nanomaterials for energy and electronics applications. Pooi See holds more than 30 patents filed/provisional applications at present. She served as the Sub-Dean/Asst. Chair (undergraduate) in MSE from July 2004-2008, Associate Chair (Research) in June 2012-2014, and Associate Chair (Faculty) in March 2014. She was awarded the National Day Awards, Public Administration Medal (Bronze) in 2014. Pooi See is a recipient of the prestigious NRF Investigatorship, Class 2015.

Pooi See is a member of Materials Research Society and she serves as the editorial board member of Advanced Energy Materials, Scientific Reports and Frontier. She is interested in synthesizing innovative nanomaterials, and harnessing its multi-functionality through understanding the structural-property characteristics. She has developed high energy capacitors, energy saving electrochromic coatings, novel transparent conductors, flexible and stretchable devices. She is keen in advancing the frontier of green nanotechnology and to translate research outcomes into real solutions.

Walter LEE

Government Relations Director, Global Safety Division, NEC, Tokyo, Japan

Walter Lee is the Government Relations Director of Global Safety Division (GSD) of NEC Corporation. He leads strategic innovation partnerships with government agencies and corporates globally in smart and safer cities solutions. Walter was the CEO of e-Cop Group, a cybersecurity services company, Senior Vice President at the Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore and Vice President and Head of IDC Consulting, Asia-Pacific and member of the worldwide Consulting Management Board. He represents NEC at various UNDP, ASEAN and Interpol workshops on smart and safer cities across the region. He has abundant and wide experiences of biometrics technologies and digital ID which can be utilized for multiple segment such as Banking/Finance, Telco, Digital Government, Aviation and Transportation.

LIM Chow Kiat

CEO, GIC, Singapore

Lim Chow Kiat was appointed Chief Executive Officer on 1 January 2017. He was previously Group Chief Investment Officer of GIC and Deputy Group President. He joined GIC as a portfolio manager upon graduation in 1993 and subsequently rose to head the Fixed Income, Currency and Commodities Department. He was President, Europe in 2009, overseeing investments and relationships in Europe, Africa and the Middle East before his appointment as President of GIC Asset Management in 2011. Mr Lim is the Chairman of Wealth Management Institute and serves on the boards of Nanyang Technological University, National Research Foundation, Enterprise Singapore and FCLT Global. He is also a member of Agence France Trésor’s Strategic Committee and International Advisory Council of Mizuho Financial Group.

Mr Lim holds a First Class Honours degree in Accountancy from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

LIM Siong Guan

Professor, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore; Former Group President, GIC; Former Head of Civil Service of Singapore; Member, stars International Board, Singapore

Siong Guan Lim was Group President of GIC from 2007 until the end of 2016, after which he was Advisor to GIC's Group Executive Committee until March 2019. The GIC manages the financial reserves of the Singapore Government. He was Chairman of the Singapore Economic Development Board from October 2006 to June 2009. The Board is the Singapore government’s lead agency for planning and executing strategies to enhance Singapore’s position as a global business centre. Much of its work is attracting international corporations to set up manufacturing and services activities in Singapore as critical links in the global supply chain.

Siong Guan has been a Professor in the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at the National University of Singapore since 2005, instructing on leadership and change management, as well as a Senior Fellow of the Civil Service College since 2006.

He was the Head of the Singapore Civil Service from September 1999 to March 2005. Siong Guan was the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Defense (1981-1994), the Prime Minister’s Office (1994-1998), the Ministry of Education (1997-1999) and the Ministry of Finance (1999-2006). In every appointment he introduced innovative policies and practices which enhanced the drive, capacity, capability and performance of the organization. Siong Guan has chaired the Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore (2004-2006), the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority (2004-2006) and the Central Provident Fund Board (1986-1994), and was a board member of many companies including Temasek, the other sovereign wealth fund manager of Singapore.


Director, Institute of South Asian Studies, National University of Singapore; Founding Director of Carnegie India, Singapore

Deanna ONG

Chief People Officer, GIC; Member, Board of Directors, Swiss Re Group; stars Alumna, Singapore

Deanna Ong was appointed Chief People Officer in April 2017 to oversee human capital strategy, talent management, leadership and organization development in GIC. She has been responsible for Human Resource & Organization and Corporate Governance since 2012. Deanna was Director, Finance from 2009 to 2014, during which she headed the Finance Group responsible for financial management across GIC’s portfolio, covering financing arrangements for assets, tax planning, investment holding structures, accounting and management of group revenue and expenditure. Prior to joining GIC in 1994, she was a tax accountant with Arthur Andersen. She is currently a board member of the International Forum of Sovereign Wealth Funds.

Deanna holds a Bachelor of Accountancy from the Nanyang Technological University of Singapore, and has completed the Stanford Executive Program.

ONG Yew Soon

Professor of Computer Science, School of Computer Science and Engineering, Co-Director, Data Science and Artificial Intelligence Research Center, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore

Yew Soon Ong received a Ph.D. degree on artificial intelligence (AI) in complex design from the University of Southampton, U.K., in 2003. He is currently a Professor of Computer Science and serves as Director of the Data Science and Artificial Intelligence Research Center as well as the Singtel-NTU Cognitive & Artificial Intelligence Corporate Laboratory at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) in Singapore. He was Chair of the School of Computer Science and Engineering at Nanyang Technological University from 2016 to 2018.

Yew Soon’s research interests in artificial and computational intelligence spans across memetic computing, optimization intelligence, and machine learning. He is the founding Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computational Intelligence, Technical Editor-in-Chief of Memetic Computing and serves in the editorial boards of many journals including the IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, the IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks & Learning Systems and the IEEE Transactions on Big Data. He has received several IEEE outstanding paper awards, was recognized as a Thomson Reuters highly cited researcher and named among the World's Most Influential Scientific Minds. In 2018, Yew Soon was conferred the IEEE Grade of Fellow for his outstanding contributions to memetic computation and its applications.

He enjoys adapting and harnessing cutting edge research technologies to address challenging problems of the industry and has since worked with leading global companies including Boeing Research & Development, Rolls-Royce, Honda Research Institute Europe, Paypal, SAP, A*Star, Singapore Technologies Engineering, SingTel and others. Several of his research works in AI have been commercialized and licensed to companies and institutions.


Executive Chairman, stars Foundation, Stein am Rhein, Switzerland

  • 2014 – present: Executive Chairman and Co-Founder of the stars Foundation Board, Weinfelden, Switzerland
  • 2008 – 2014: Chairman and Co-Founder of the stars Foundation Board, Weinfelden, Switzerland
  • 1994 – 2016: Member of the Board of UBS Wolfsberg and Congress Hotel Seepark AG
  • 1994 – 2014: CEO, UBS Wolfsberg. Emphasis on Business Development, i.e. initiating, supervising, and conducting UBS Briefings, UBS Health Forum, UBS Arts Forum, UBS Study Trips, UBS Think Tanks, Wolfsberg Podium (
  • 1981 – 1994: Various responsibilities for UBS Management and Executive Development, Member and Chairman of the Board of UBS Art Collection
  • Concurrently: Member of the Board of various companies and foundations in Switzerland


Consultant on Asian Affairs; Former East Asia Correspondent of Neue Zuercher Zeitung; Member, stars International Board, Tokyo/Zurich

In 1978, Urs Schoettli was appointed Secretary General of the Liberal International, a world-wide federation of liberal and democratic parties, of which Urs Schoettli acted as Executive Vice President from 1983 until 1993. Also in 1983, he joined the Neue Zurcher Zeitung and became its South Asia Correspondent in New Delhi. Between 1986 and 1990, Urs Schoettli served as Representative of the German Friedrich Naumann Foundation in India.
In 1990, he left the Neue Zurcher Zeitung and became Head of project of the Friedrich Naumann Foundation in Spain. Between 1993 and 1994, he served as Director of the political academy of the Friedrich Naumann Foundation in Portugal and as Honorary Director of the Commission for the Greater Europe in Vienna and Moscow.
Urs Schoettli returned to the Neue Zurcher Zeitung as its Correspondent in Hong Kong in 1996. Three years later, he moved from Hong Kong to Tokyo and worked as the East Asia Correspondent of the Neue Zurcher Zeitung until 2002. During the following five years, Urs Schoettli was the China Correspondent of the Neue Zurcher Zeitung, based in Beijing. He then became the Far East Correspondent for the Neue Zurcher Zeitung based in Tokyo.
Urs Schoettli was Co-Editor of the reviews Indo Asia, LibroAperto and Debate Abierto. He has published widely on topics of liberalism, development policies and international security issues in Latin American, American and European journals. Urs Schottli is also the author of numerous books on South Asia, citizenship and environmental issues. Urs Schoettli studied philosophy at the University of Basel.

TAN Chong Meng

Group CEO, PSA International, Singapore

Tan Chong Meng is the Group Chief Executive Officer of PSA International, a leading global port group with port operations in Asia, Europe, Middle East and Latin America. He heads PSA’s Senior Management Council, the executive team responsible for making key decisions Group-wide.

Chong Meng joined PSA on 1 October 2011, bringing with him a wealth of experience in managing the complexity, diversity and breadth of a global business. Together with his management team, he is responsible for the overall performance of the PSA Group and provides strategic direction on growing the company’s value through maximising assets, developing PSA port positions and engaging global business partnerships.

Outside the PSA Group, Chong Meng serves as a non-Executive Director on the board of the National University Health System (NUHS) and also a Board Member of IE Singapore.
Before joining PSA, Chong Meng served as the Executive Vice President, Global Commercial, Shell Downstream, of the Royal Dutch Shell Group. He led six global businesses – many of which are world leaders engaged in the marketing and sale of fuels, lubricants and specialty products to commercial customers vis-à-vis Aviation, Marine, Industrial, Land Transport, Construction and Liquefied Petroleum Gas. A global leader with more than 20 years of experience in Shell, Chong Meng worked in USA, Europe, China and Singapore, holding various senior leadership positions. His responsibilities spanned from management, sales, marketing, trading, refinery operations, customer service to merger & acquisitions. Besides keeping a sharp focus on business growth and profitability, Chong Meng is equally balanced in people development, having spent many years leading the Asian Talent Council within Shell to effectively grow and promote Asian talents within the company.

Prior to Shell, Chong Meng had also worked in various positions with Singapore’s Ministry of National Development for five years.

Marvin TAN

Senior Vice President, Customer Services & Operations, Singapore Airlines; Former CEO, SilkAir; stars Alumnus, Singapore

Marvin Tan began his career with Singapore Airlines in 1996 as a Cadet Administrative Officer. He was appointed Passenger Marketing Executive that same year.

Marvin was posted overseas as Marketing Services Manager (Taipei) in 1998, Manager Chubu in 1999, General Manager Vietnam in 2004 and General Manager UK and Ireland in 2006.

In 2008, he returned to Head Office as Vice President Ground Services and was promoted to Divisional Vice President Customer Services in 2009.

Marvin was seconded to wholly-owned subsidiary SilkAir as Chief Executive from October 2010 to September 2012. He was subsequently posted to Singapore Airlines Cabin Crew Division and appointed Senior Vice President Cabin Crew in 2013. In March 2016, Marvin took up the portfolio of Senior Vice President Product & Services.

He became Senior Vice President Customer Services & Operations following the re-organisation of Product & Services division in November 2017.

He currently serves on the Board of Virgin Australia Holdings.

Marvin holds a Bachelor of Arts in International Relations (with Distinction) from Stanford University, USA.

Yinglan TAN

Founding Managing Partner and CEO, Insignia Ventures Partners; Member, stars International Board, Singapore

Yinglan TAN founded Insignia Ventures Partners in 2017. Insignia Ventures Partners is an early stage technology venture fund focusing on Southeast Asia. It manages more than US$350 million from sovereign wealth funds, foundations, university endowments and renowned family offices. Insignia Ventures Partners is the recipient of two back-to-back “VC Deal of Year” awards for Payfazz (2019) and Carro (2018) from the Singapore Venture Capital and Private Equity Association and its portfolio includes many other technology leaders in Southeast Asia. Yinglan also serves on the Singapore Government’s Pro Enterprise Panel and he is a Member of the Board of Hwa Chong Institution and the stars International Board.


Founder and CEO, Cloud To Go; stars Alumnus, Shenzhen, China

Wu Di is an entrepreneur and Investor in technologies. As founder and CEO of Cloud To Go, he builds unified cloud platforms and communities for users and developers to make, sell, and use applications.